Broad-spectrum oils, also referred to as entire plant extracts, retain the complete appearance of the cannabis plant. These include several compounds, including THC, THCa, CBD, CBD, CBG, and CBN, as well as terpenes and other components such as flavonoids, enzymes, phenols, sterols, and esters.
Such extracts are attractive for a variety of purposes. We recreate the taste and fragrance profile of the plant from an experiential point of view. In a medical or nutritional point of view, you get the full effects of the entourage effect — the idea that the various elements of the herb function synergistically to stimulate the activity of active drugs, such as THC and CBD.
Full-spectrum extracts are incredibly challenging to produce. Although you need to retain as much of the attractive compounds as possible, you do want to exclude unwanted components from the extract. Any extraction approaches pump out the above using several grinding techniques.
Nevertheless, these same procedures also deprive samples of some of the more fragile substances, such as terpenes and flavonoids.
Techniques utilized to create full-spectrum extracts.
The methods used to produce full-spectrum extracts will dance a delicate line to bring the required compounds in and out.
Remember that the complete range of the compounds of the strain involved is proportional to the stage at which the extraction is done. For starters, a live resin extract obtained from a fresh plant would have a different profile than that of an extract of dried plant content. That is because some of the substances shift during the drying process.
Furthermore, the profile of a plant may rely on several other variables, including the part of the plant, its age and environmental conditions. As such, you may have several full-spectrum extracts of the same strain, both of which have separate profiles.
Extraction with Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon extraction utilizes a butane or butane-propane mix to obtain full-spectrum extracts. This approach helps an extract profile to be modified.
In this method of extraction, the hydrocarbon gas is cooled and liquefied until it moves over raw plant material. The attractive plant compounds are extracted, and the resultant solution is processed using different methods, such as wintering and dewaxing. Both methods utilize special solvents and low temperatures to extract wax and lipids from the finished product.
Full-spectrum extracts will be perfect, but the method parameters must be correct. Simple differences in the composition and temperature of the solvent can result in a specific product. For example, a slight increase in temperature may cause certain terpenes to volatilize, altering the flavour profile of the extract.
Supercritical extraction through CO2
In the case of supercritical CO2 production, temperature and pressure are used to produce phase differences in CO2. It goes from a fluid to having the characteristics of both a fluid and a liquid. Water has a gas-like viscosity and weak surface friction, allowing water possible to pass transparent solids than a liquid does. It results in a material that pushes plant matter substances out based on their weights.
By changing the temperature and pressure, you can ‘tune’ the CO2 to establish a particular state in which the supercritical fluid absorbs the most suitable materials. While CO2 extraction includes sophisticated machinery, it needs little to no post-processing, unlike other extraction methods.
Heat & Pressure
The concept behind full-spectrum extracts is to eliminate unnecessary ingredients. Any plant lipids, for example, may contribute to a bad taste or a harsh vapour. That said, some of the concentrates comprising such lipids, such as rosin, are also called full-spectrum. Rosin is developed by extracting the resin from the starting material (such as dry sift) using heat and pressure, often using a specialized rosin press.
The most significant benefit here is that manufacturing does not involve the use of a solvent and is relatively clean. However, when the heat is engaged, there is fear that any of the desirable plant materials, such as terpenes, are wasted in this method.
Discovering full-spectrum cannabis goods
There is no clarity about what defines a full-spectrum component, so certain items are classified as such, even though they do not follow the standard meaning. The only real way to tell is to examine the results of the laboratory test for the extract.
Here are some product names to look for when selecting a full-spectrum extract.
Cannabis live resin
Live resins are produced using fresh (sometimes frozen) cannabis plants instead of dried plant material. Not all live resins are full-spectrum compounds, and their structure relies on how they are handled.
If processed using one of the above processes, you may obtain a full-spectrum extract. Yet, for example, if you use a heat-inducing device, you can remove other compounds from the plant profile, such as terpenes.
(HTFSE) High terpene full-spectrum extract
The extraction method for this drug is built to generate a high amount of terpenes, often up to 40%. It is viscous and smooth with a honey-like quality. Many HTFSEs are known as “sauce” or “terp sauce,” terms that suggest a significant content of terpene. Not all the oil, though, is full-spectrum.
(HCFSE) High cannabinoid full-spectrum extract
For HCFSE, procedures are modified such that the finished output has a large concentration of cannabinoid. An effect is a crystalline form identical to that of sugar or diamonds. Although HTFSE and HCFSE may be derived from the same plant, both are called broad-spectrum extracts, as they do contain a complete range of desirable compounds present in the raw material, but at different amounts.